German Dornier Do 335A
FE-1012
W Nr 240101

Stock No. 3609-01-0411-DO335A
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Photo by Earl L. Ware, Base Photographer
Freeman Field, 1945-6


Photo by Earl L. Ware, Base Photographer
Freeman Field, 1945-6

Photographed at Roth bei Nurnberg in 1945.  Later flown to Freeman AAF.
Mrs. J. Woolams Collection

at Roth bei Nurnberg in June 1945.  The pilot standing beside the aircraft is Flugkapitan Hans Padell.
Ed Maxwell collection

Taken at Roth bei Nurnburg by the 30th ADS. They come from AFHRA reel A0708.  Of interest in this view is the Ju-290, FE-3400 in the background.  Supplied by Richard Corey, 2/2008.
Source Disposition
NASM aircraft is the second Do-335A-0, designated A-02, with construction number (werke nummer) 240102 and factory registration VG+PH. It was built at Dornier's Rechlin-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, plant on April 16, 1945.
NASM converted to A-4 standard Do 335A-0        VG+PG/101     240101      DB603A-2 engines, at Rechlin July 1944
NASM captured by Allied forces at the plant on April 22, 1945
NASM flown from a grass runway at Oberweisenfeld, near Munich, to Cherbourg, France
War Prizes
pg 220
Arrived at Cherbourg 17 June 1945 piloted by Flugkapitan Padell.
NASM two Do-335s were shipped to the United States aboard the Royal Navy ship HMS "Reaper
NASM aircraft, with registration FE-1012 (later T2-1012), went to the USAAF at Freeman Field, Indiana where it was tested in early 1946.
TSEAL 6D
09/01/1945
08/01/1945 at Newark to be sent to Freeman Field
War Prizes
pg 220
17 May 1946 at Freeman Field and 75% restored
War Prizes
pg 220
15 August 1946 at Freeman Field awaiting delivery of it's engines from overhaul.
War Prizes
pg 220
Whereabouts is unknown
Wingspan 13.8 m (45 ft. 3.33 in.)
Length 13.85 m (45 ft. 5.25 in.)
Height 5 m (16 ft. 4.75 in.)
Weight 7,400 kg (16,314 lb.) empty

Dornier Do-335A-1 Pfeil

 
Wingspan 13.8 m (45 ft. 3.33 in.)
Length 13.85 m (45 ft. 5.25 in.)
Height 5 m (16 ft. 4.75 in.)
Weight 7,400 kg (16,314 lb.) empty

The Do-335 was one of a small group of aircraft marking the pinnacle of international piston-engined development. It was the fastest production piston-engined fighter ever built, attaining 846 kilometers per hour (474 mph) in level flight at a time when the official world speed record was 755 kph (469 mph). Powered by two 1800-hp engines in a unique low-drag configuration and weighing 9600 kg (21,000 lb) loaded, it was an exceptional heavy fighter. This very innovative design also featured an ejection seat, for pilot safety, and a jettisoning fin.

The unconventional layout of the Do-335 -- one engine "pulling" in the nose and another "pushing" in the tail -- was patented by Claudius Dornier in 1937. The configuration provided the power of two engines, but with reduced drag and better maneuverability. The German Aviation Ministry (RLM) was interested in the design, but initially wanted Dornier only to produce bombers. By 1942, Dornier was still continuing design work and the war situation was worsening. The Luftwaffe now needed a multi-purpose fighter, and the prototype Do-335V-1 ("V" indicating "versuchs" or "experimental") flew in fighter form in September, 1943 - six years after its conception. Orders were immediately placed for 14 prototypes, 10 A-0 preproduction aircraft, 11 production A-1 single-seaters, and 3 A-10 and A-12 two-seat trainers.

The aircraft was quite large for a single-seat fighter, with a cruciform tail and a tricycle landing gear. The two massive liquid-cooled Daimler-Benz DB-603 engines were used in four different versions, each displacing 44.5 liters (2670 cu in) and weighing 910 kg (2006 lb). The engine produced 1750 hp from 12 cylinders in an inverted V layout using fuel injection and an 8.3:1 compression ratio. The rear three-bladed propeller and dorsal fin were jettisoned by explosive bolts in an emergency, to allow the pilot to bail out safely using a pneumatic ejection seat. The seat, inclined 13 degrees to the rear, was ejected with a force of 20 times gravity. The ventral fin could be jettisoned for a belly landing.

Unlike a normal twin-engined aircraft, with wing-mounted engines, loss of an engine on the Do-335 did not cause a handling problem. Even with one engine out, speed was a respectable 621 kph (348 mph). Because of its appearance, pilots dubbed it the "Ant eater" ("Ameisenbar"), although they described its performance as exceptional, particularly in acceleration and turning radius. The Do-335 was very docile in flight and had no dangerous spin characteristics. Many Do-335 prototypes were built, as the Reich strained desperately to provide day and night fighters and fast reconnaissance aircraft to the failing war effort. One of the many RLM production plans, issued in December 1943, called for the production of 310 Do-335s by late 1945. Initial production was at the Dornier Manuel plant, but this factory was bombed heavily in March-April, 1944, and the Do-335 tooling was destroyed.

Air News with Air Tech
December 1945

To most people on this side of the Atlantic, the Dornier 335 is a very unusual, very new propellered German type revealed during the Final hours of the Luftwaffe.  And few Allied types can challenge the design peculiarity of this aeronautical hybrid. But the double-ended Dornier was actually born more than eight years ago, only to languish until 1942 when Hitler first authorized production.

In performance this strange plane more than matches the oddity of its lines.  Powered by a pair of DB-603E liquid-cooled engines arranged in tandem, it has attained a speed in excess of 500 mph with both 12-foot, 3-blade propellers in operation. Operating on one engine, it can move along at a 350­mph clip for several minutes.

A big airplane by any standard, the un­usually rugged 335 weighs more than 18,000 pounds with standard equipment and loading, actually tops 22,000 pounds in certain sub­types. With wing span and length of ap­proximately 45 feet, it was originally built as a single seater only to emerge during the last year of war with a pig-a-back seating arrangement for training and reconnaissance utilization. Intended as an antidote for De Havilland Mosquito raids on the Reich, the Dorñier has a wing loading of 41 pounds per square foot in the standard model, wing load­ing of 35 pounds per square foot in one high altitude type. However, interchangeability of armament and equipment brought wide divergence in gross loading on various mis­sions

That the Dormer qualified as an all-purpose airplane is perhaps best evidenced by operating specifications. With a 520-gallon main tank installed behind the pilot’s compartment, two wing tanks, two drop tanks, and a bomb bay fuel cell, the big ship carried a total of 1,000 gallons of gasoline and boasted a range of approximately 2,400 miles. With internal and external belly tanks removed, the Do-335 carried a single 1,000 kg., two 500 kg. bombs, or ten 70 kg. anti-personnel missiles in the bomb bay, along with one 250 kg. bomb in each drop-tank shackle. The full-up fighter installation included one 30-mm gun firing through the propeller hub, one 20-mm gun on each side of the nose cowling within the propeller arc, and one 20- or 30-mm gun in each wing. Although pilots had little chance for survival in bail­out because of the rear prop and large empennage, they were well-protected in the air with a bullet-resistant glass windshield and cockpit enclosure, an armored bulkhead between cockpit and main fuel tank.

Structurally, the Do-335 is neither unique nor commonplace, with certain refinements providing interesting but hardly spectacular variations on a standard monoplane theme. The trapezoidal wing, built around a heavy spar, has stressed metal skin, squared tips with detachable corners, leading edge de­icer, stowage for master unit of remote indi­cating compass, hydraulic tanks, oxygen bottles. On the A-6 version, radar antennae are mounted outboard on each wing. The all-metal monocoque fuselage is distinguished only by circular radiator in the nose, jettisonable mounting for rear propeller, cushioned stringers for hollow shaft to rear propeller, and explosive canopy release. In two-place models, the extra seat is above the leading edge of the wing and faces into the fuselage, with only the fuel tank separating this seat from the rear engine. Altogether the Do-335 stands as a good idea—but something less than a great airplane. It may, however, provide several design features for planes of the future.

Model sold on Ebay 11/2007



Only one Do 335 survives today. The aircraft was the second preproduction Do 335 A-0, designated A-02, with construction number (Werknummer) 240102, and factory radio code registration, or Stammkennzeichen, of VG+PH. The aircraft was assembled at Dornier's plant in Oberpfaffenhofen (southern Germany) on April 16, 1945. It was captured by allied forces at the plant on April 22, 1945. The aircraft was test flown from a grass runway at Oberwiesenfeld, near Munich, to Cherbourg, France while escorted by two P-51's. The Do 335 was easily able to out distance the escorting Mustangs and arrived at Cherbourg 45 minutes before the P-51's. VG+PH was one of two Do 335's to be shipped to the United States aboard the Royal Navy ship HMS Reaper, along with other captured German aircraft, to be used for testing and evaluation under a USAAF program called "Operation Sea Horse." One Do 335, with registration FE-1012, went to the USAAF and was tested in early 1946 at Freeman Field, Indiana. Its fate is a mystery.

VG+PH went to the Navy for evaluation and was sent to the Test and Evaluation Center, Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Maryland. Following testing from 1945 to 1948 the aircraft languished in outside storage at Naval Air Station Norfolk. In 1961 it was donated to the Smithsonian's National Air Museum, though it remained in deteriorating condition at Norfolk for several more years before being moved the National Air & Space Museum's storage facility in Silver Hill, Maryland. In October, 1974 VG+PH was returned to the Dornier plant in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany (then building the Alpha Jet) for a complete restoration. In 1975 the aircraft was beautifully restored by Dornier employees, many of whom had worked on the airplane originally. They were amazed to find that the explosive charges built into the aircraft to blow off the tail fin and rear propeller in the event of an emergency were still on the aircraft and active thirty years later. Following restoration the completed Do 335 was displayed at the Hanover, Germany Airshow from May 1 to 9, 1976. After the Airshow the aircraft was loaned to the Deutsches Museum in Munich where it was on display until 1986, when it was shipped back to Silver Hill, Maryland. VG+PH can be seen today in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air & Space Museum alongside other unique late-war German aircraft such as the Arado Ar 234B-2 "Blitz," and the only surviving Heinkel He 219A "Uhu" (currently only the fuselage is on display, the wings are still undergoing restoration as of March 2007).


unknown source and location

Do 335 Production List

Do 335V series prototypes, 14 aircraft built at Friedrichshafen, 
mid 1943 to mid 1944, and tested at Mengen.

Model            Code          Werk Nr.    Notes

Do 335V-1        CP+UA         230001      1st prototype.  DB603A-1 engines.  
FF 28.10.43
Do 335V-2        CP+UB         230002      to Rechlin, rear engine caught fire, 
w/o 15.04.44
Do 335V-3        CP+UC/T9+ZH   230003      A-4 prototype, to Ob.d.L.
Do 335V-4        CP+UD         230004      Do 435 prototype, not completed
Do 335V-5        CP+UE         230005      1st with armament fitted, A-2 engines 
Do 335V-6        CP+UF         230006      Dornier development a/c, hit by bomb
Do 335V-7        CP+UG         230007      Junkers Jumo 213A & E testbed, Dessau
Do 335V-8        CP+UH         230008      Daimler-Benz DB603E-1 testbed, Stuttgart
Do 335V-9        CP+UI/V9      230009      A-0 prototype, to Rechlin May 1944
Do 335V-10       CP+UK         230010      A-6 prototype night ftr with SN-2 radar
Do 335V-11       CP+UL/11      230011      A-10 prototype trainer
Do 335V-12       CP+UM         230012      A-12 prototype trainer
Do 335V-13       RP+UA/13      230013      B-1 prototype, to France for tests
Do 335V-14       RP+UB/14      230014      B-2 prototype, destroyed


Do 335A-0 pre-production batch, 10 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen 
July-Oct 1944. 

One example converted to A-4 standard.
Model            Code          Werk Nr.    Notes

Do 335A-0        VG+PG/101     240101      DB603A-2 engines, at Rechlin July 1944
Do 335A-0        VG+PH/102     240102      sole survivor, to USAAF as FE 1012, 
                                                                         now at NASM
Do 335A-0        VG+PI/103     240103      to Ob.d.L. late July 1944
Do 335A-0        VG+IJ/104     240104      to Erkdo 335 Sept 1944
Do 335A-0        VG+IK/105     240105      to Erkdo 335 captured by 
US at Lechfeld 4.45
Do 335A-0        VG+PL/106     240106      to Erkdo 335
Do 335A-0        VG+PM/107     240107      to Erkdo 335
Do 335A-0        VG+PN/108     240108      to Erkdo 335
Do 335A-0        VG+PO/109     240109      to Erkdo 335
Do 335A-0        VG+PP/110     240110      to Erkdo 335 Oct 1944

Do 335A-1 production batch.  11 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen, 

plus 9 aircraft part assembled, Nov-April 1945.
Model            Code          Werk Nr.    Notes

Do 335A-1             113      240113       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240161       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240162       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240163       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240164       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240165       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240166       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240167       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240168       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240169       Captured by US
Do 335A-1                      240170       Captured by US
Do 335A-1              01      240301       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              02      240302       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              03      240303       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              04      240304       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              05      240305       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              06      240306       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              07      240307       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              08      240308       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-1              09      240309       Partly assembled  Captured by US


Do 335A-2 project only
Do 335A-3 project only

Do 335A-4 10 aircraft scheduled Jan-Feb 1945, only 4 part assembled at

 Oberpfaffenhofen.
Model            Code          Werk Nr.     Notes


Do 335A-4              10      240310       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-4              11      240311       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-4              12      240312       Partly assembled  Captured by US
Do 335A-4              13      240313       Partly assembled  Captured by US


Do 335A-6 none assembled, Heinkel Vienna factory bombed out.

Do 335A-10  aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen.
Model            Code          Werk Nr.     Notes


Do 335A-10             111     240111       flew late Nov 1944. Captured by US at Oberpf.
Do 335A-10                     240114       not completed


Do 335A-12.  2 aircraft built at Oberpfaffenhofen, plus 2 aircraft part assembled.
Model            Code          Werk Nr.     Notes

 
Do 335A-12             112     240112       Air Min 225, to RAE, w/o 18 Jan 1946
Do 335A-12             121     240121       to England, w/o 13 Dec 1945
Do 335A-12             122     240122       not completed, scrapped by US
Do 335A-12                                  Partly assembled

Do 335B series prototypes.  6 aircraft part assembled at Oberpfaffenhofen.
Model            Code          Werk Nr.     Notes


Do 335B-2        RP+UB 14/18   240118       B-2 replacement proto, to France 
                                                                            with CEV until 4.6.48
Do 335V-15       RP+UC 15/19   240119       B-1 2nd prototype to Lwe 2.45
Do 335V-16       RP+UD 16/20   240120       B-2 2nd prototype night ftr with FuG 218
Do 335V-17       RP+UE 17/16   240116       B-6 prototype to France w/o Autumn 45
Do 335V-18       RP+UF 18/17   240117       B-6 2nd prototype night ftr to Lwe 2.45
Do 335V-19       RP+UG 19/15   240115       B-3 prototype not completed
Do 335V-20                                  B-7 prototype not completed
Do 335V-21                                  B-8 prototype not completed
Do 335V-22                                  B-8 2nd prototype not completed
Deliveries began to the 1st Experimental Squadron of the Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe ( I/Versuchsverband Ob.d.L.) in late July 1944 for operational trials.
[..........]
The NASM aircraft is the second Do-335A-0, designated A-02, with construction number (werke nummer) 240102 and factory registration VG+PH. It was built at Dornier's Rechlin-Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, plant on April 16, 1945. It was captured by Allied forces at the plant on April 22, 1945. After checkout, it was flown from a grass runway at Oberweisenfeld, near Munich, to Cherbourg, France. During this flight, the Do-335 easily out-climbed and outdistanced two escorting P-51s, beating them to Cherbourg by 45 minutes.
Under the U.S. Army Air Force's "Project Sea Horse," two Do-335s were shipped to the United States aboard the Royal Navy ship HMS "Reaper" together with other captured German aircraft, for detailed evaluation. This aircraft was assigned to the U.S. Navy, which tested it at the Test and Evaluation Center, Patuxent River Naval Air Station, Maryland. The other aircraft, with registration FE-1012 (later T2-1012), went to the USAAF at Freeman Field, Indiana, where it was tested in early 1946. Its subsequent fate is unknown, and this is the only Do-335 known to exist.

http://www.armchairgeneral.com/
www.IndianaMilitary.org
Jim West
Page last revised 11/01/2012

Foreign Equipment Branch
Technical Data Laboratory, Engineering Division
Headquarters, Air Technical Service Command, Wright Field, Ohio
TSEAL 6D      01 Sept 1945
(click here for complete form)

Plane Serial Location Date 1st Received Total Flying Time Status Current Disposition Priority Est. Completion Date Condition Crew Chief Remarks
DO 335 FE-1012 Newark 08/01/1945 0 out assembly   09/05/1945     to be sent to Freeman