Freeman Army Air Field Museum
1035 "A" Ave., PO Box 714
Seymour, IN 47274
 
Open Saturday mornings,
9:00AM to Noon
Other times by appointment
 
Phone (Airport Manager's Office)
Mon-Fri 812-522-2031
 
Phone evenings & weekends
812-524-9440
 

 Luftwaffe Aircraft Parts
Found at Freeman Field

by Lou Thole

In late 1997, a large quantity of Luftwaffe aircraft parts and other equipment was unearthed at Freeman Field, in Seymour, Indiana. This discovery came after several years of research and exploratory digging. The story of the finding of the World War II German aircraft parts is an interesting one that helps answer many of the rumors about the field's activities at the end of the war.

Freeman Field was an advanced twin engine training field, one of the hundreds used to train aircrew personnel during the war. The field is on the outskirts of Seymour, Indiana about 60 miles south of Indianapolis. It was named to honor Captain Richard S. Freeman, a 1930 graduate of West Point. Captain Freeman helped establish Ladd Field which is today's Wainwright Army Base just outside Fairbanks, Alaska. He was Ladd Field's first commander. Freeman Field had four runways, each 5,500 feet long and 413 buildings. Today, it's a thriving general aviation airport with the former cantonment area converted into an industrial park. Located in one of the former Link Trainer buildings is a small by growing museum that honors the field's contributions during WW2. The museum was founded by the airport manager, Mr. Ted Jordan.

Freeman Field's unique story begins while the war in Europe was nearing its end. Training at the field had stopped and it became the site for the storage of American and foreign aircraft. Most of the foreign airplanes were German, but there were also Japanese, Italian and English planes. Nowhere in the United States would there be such large numbers of foreign aircraft, many of which were rare and incredible advanced for their time, In addition, there were warehouses full of Luftwaffe equipment. This equipment was there as a result of a directive from the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, H. H. Arnold that an airfield be found to be used as a repository and testing center for "enemy aeronautical equipment"./ In June 1945, Freeman Field was placed under the direct command of the Air Technical Service Command with the mission of receiving, reconditioning, evaluating, and storing at least one each of every item of enemy aircraft material. The field was also charged with the mission to receive and catalogue U. S. equipment for display at the present and for the future AAF museum.

With the end of the war, activities at the field were gradually shut down and efforts were made to dispose of the surplus equipment. Most of the aircraft were transferred to other Air Force facilities. In addition to the aircraft, there were several buildings full of captured Luftwaffe equipment. No funds were available to maintain and store this equipment, nor was there much desire to do anything but forget the war and move on to a peacetime footing as soon as possible. So the excess material was discarded.

Since the field's closing, many people have come forward and talked about either seeing being involved in the dumping of planes and parts at Freeman Field. Serious efforts to recover this material began in early 1992. However this work did not produce any significant results and the group lost interest. There was no further activity until 1995. At that time, Lex Cralley, the founder of Salvage I headquartered in Princeton, Minnesota, went to the Aviation Board of Freeman Field with his plan to find and recover the material. For Lex, the recovery of WW2 aviation artifacts is a labor of love, so he spends much of his free time looking for the planes that flew long ago. This time there would be a different search methodology that would include ground imaging radar. In addition, Lex is a strong believer in getting the local people involved in the search by asking them to review their memories of the field's activities in 1947 and 1947. Thorough this method, he found some who did remember digging activities at the field at war's end. By August 1995, everything was ready to dig in a different site. However, Freeman Field was not going to give up its secrets easily. After several days of exploring, mostly via small holes, it was decided that nothing was buried in that spot. Over the next several months, other areas were searched but nothing was found.

In early 1997 the first solid evidence of buried aircraft parts was uncovered at Freeman Field. The parts were found as a result of intensive ground imaging radar study and the use of sophisticated metal detectors. Only small items were found, all of which were of American manufacture: however, they did confirm some of the long standing rumors. By now, Lex had been joined in his search by Dallas Tohill, an aircraft historian who works with Gerald Yagen, president of Tidewater Tech. Tidewater Tech, an aviation maintenance school located in Norfolk, Virginia. The school also operates its own historic aircraft restoration facility. Tidewater Tech had joined Lex as an equal partner and was making the major contribution toward financing a new and concentrated effort to locate the buried material.

It was now late August and the search had moved into a different area of the field. The group had learned that, even using the best of search equipment, it was still necessary to dig small holes in order to confirm the presence of buried artifacts. Also learned was that one could dig a hole ten feet deep and yet miss an object that might be just an inch away buried to the side of the hole. This was a discouraging thought in view of the fact that there were about 2,100 acres, any part of which could contain the artifacts. It was like looking for the proverbial needle in the haystack.

Finally it happened. Dallas and Lex had been digging small exploratory holes for about three days in late August and had found nothing except junk buried during the fifties and sixties, i.e. the same mixture of old tin cans, bottles and an occasion tire or piece of steel. Everyone was feeling more than a little bit discouraged and miserable because of the mosquito bites and poison ivy rash. Then it was decided to dig in another spot about five feet away from a previous hole. And there it was. Not more than three feet below the surface, the backhoe uncovered an engine cylinder head. Additional digging brought up almost a hundred cylinder heads, many from different engines. Continued digging, in a different direction turned up propeller blades, some clearly from FW190s, two from an AT-10 and others not yet identified. Also wooden props were discovered - huge one, with some kind of number written on the. The condition of the metal props was extremely good. One was still in cosmoline ( a thick protective grease), with several names scratched into the grease. One read "J. M. Muldoon, 550 Grah (last letter unreadable), Bky NY". This was probably written by a GI or civilian employee of the sub-depot just before the material was transported to the dump site.

At this point it was very difficult using the backhoe for fear of damaging the parts. It appeared the parts were loaded on trucks, transported to the site and just dumped. By now, Lex and Dallas were running into parts of aircraft, i.e. wheel faring doors (at least one from a Spitfire), landing gear struts, German aircraft tires, instruments (mostly radio equipment, some with their Luftwaffe data plates), and engine parts. Also found was most of a vertical tail grouping from an FW190. Some of the paint was well preserved with part of the Swastika easily visible. It was difficult digging because it was done in mid-eighty degree heat with a high humidity that was most uncomfortable. The mosquitoes were especially thick, because the area was in heavy brush. In some cases, it was necessary to remove the parts by hand. Often they were laying on top of each other, weighed down by 50 years of settling, the weight of the other parts and several feet of mud. Only the thrill of finding this treasure of the Luftwaffe material made up for the oppressive heat and constant unwanted attention from the bug population of southern Indiana.

One puzzling thing was that no jet engine or jet aircraft parts were found. Our research indicated Luftwaffe jets were on the field. Also, we clearly had hit what was a dump site for parts from the old Freeman Field engineering shops. Work was performed on the jets while they were at the field, but where were the parts ? The insidious nature of this dig soon came to light. The parts were found in a separate pit not more than 15 feet away from the hole that contained the piston engine parts. One of the better finds was an eight stage compressor from a Junker Jumo 004 engine, the type that powered the Me262.

After several years of painstaking and sometimes frustrating research and exploration, the existence of buried German aircraft parts at Freeman Field was finally proven. The amount of buried material recovered is quite large and exceptionally interesting. However; still persisting, is the rumor that unopened crates of Luftwaffe material are buried somewhere on the field. If these crates do exist, their contents will prove to be of significant value to museums all over the world. So, the search continues.  

Author's Note: Readers who can suggest additional locations elsewhere in the world to search using underground radar or sidescan sonar are invited to contact Tidewater Tech by FAX: (757) 557 - 0480, or EMail: DTOH@aol.com or call Lex Cralley at (612) 856 - 3663  


German Flettner FI - 282 Helicopter at Freeman Field  


Oxygen Bottles and Bomb Selectors dug up at Freeman  


Misc. German Plane parts dug up at Freeman  


Tail Section of German FW - 190  


German V - 2 Rocket parts Dug up at Freeman  

Representative planes once at Freeman Field
Now in museums all over the world


German Horton 229 "Flying Wing" being unloaded from
train at Freeman Field, August 1945  

 Other German aircraft once at Freeman Field:

He 162
Me 262 (jet)
Ju 388
Ju 290 "Alles Kaputt"


Large 4 Engine German Bomber

When this plane was readied to fly from Freeman to Wright-Patterson, the American pilots could not read German, and of course, all the instruments were labeled in German. So they pushed , pulled and twisted every control in the plane until they could get it started and successfully flew to Wright-Patterson. Later, during an examination of the plane, an explosive charge was located at the base of the wing. It was a booby trap, in case the plane should fall into enemy hands. It is a miracle that the pilots did not accidentally set the charge off.


Herman Goring's personal plane at Freeman.


Fisher XP - 75 on display at Freeman Field.
Pictured are Mrs. Bel Cramer and friend. (cramer)


V - 2 Rocket with the Field's control tower in the background.
This photo was probably taken at a public showing of the
field's aircraft in September 1945. Most of the field's aircraft
were on display at this time. (white)


Lineup of foreign aircraft at Freeman, circa 1946.
Note the two Bf - 108s. (white)


Captain White standing next to his favorite plane, the Bf - 108.
This was rumored to be Herman Goerings's personal aircraft.
It arrived on the field in crates painted in gaudy orange and
yellow colors.


Heinkel He 162 A Salamander on display a Freeman Field.
This was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to build a simple,
easy to fly fighter. About 120 were produced but were too
late to have any impact on the aerial war. Top speed
was about 500 mph. (white)


The Arado Ar 234B Blitz (Lightning). this aircraft was far ahead
of its time, and if produced in quantity could have been a serious
threat because of its speed, about 460 mph, and bomb load. (white)


The Focke Wulf 190, one of the outstanding fighters of World War 2.
Note the squadron hangar in the background. (white)


Junkers Ju 88, one of the most numerous and versatile aircraft of WW2. (white)

Freeman Field Dig
www.aerohistorian.com
February, 1998

By Dick Phillips

While several of our members are aware of what the present Freeman Field Research Project is all about, I'm sure that there are several that may be hearing about it for the first time. In the summer of 1945, an ambitious effort was made in the ETO (European Theatre of Operations), to obtain as many German aircraft as possible, selecting the most airworthy examples of each type, to send them to the USA for testing and evaluation. The code name for this project was LUSTY. It was under the command of Col. Harold E. Watson, and the pilots and the men involved became known as Watson's Whizzers. Over several months, they collected whatever aircraft the Luftwaffe had left at overrun airfields and ferried them to ports in France. There they were loaded on board several ships. Among them were the HMS Reaper and the liberty ship, Richard J. Gattling. On arrival at Newark, the crated aircraft were put on railway flat cars and the many tons of spare parts were loaded into box cars for the trip west to Wright Field at Dayton, Ohio. One of the requirements when collecting the German aircraft was that they had to be accompanied by a year's supply of spare parts to support the flight-testing program. This included spare engines, tires, landing gear, control surfaces, instruments and any other parts that could not be readily available at Wright Field. Therefore, many crates of parts came over with the aircraft.

By the time the material was arriving at Wright Field, it had been decided to use Freeman Field, Seymour, Indiana, as the evaluation site. Freeman was about 90 miles northwest of Dayton. Freeman field had been built as a twin engine training field and had been used to train over 4000 pilots in the AT-10 "Wichita". Freeman was also used for a short time as the first training field for the R-4B Sikorsky helicopter. This was a brand new and radical type of aircraft in those days.

Several of the crated war prizes were assembled and a test flight program was initiated in the late summer of 1945. Not only were there Luftwaffe machines on had at Freeman, but a similar project had been undertaken with Japanese, Italian and even a few English aircraft. The list of German types on hand was extensive and included the very familiar Bf-109, FW-190, JU-88, Ju-87's plus jets such as the Me-262, He-162, Ar-234 and even V-1 and V-2 rockets. There were also many trainer, bomber and transport types on hand. Now keep in mind that all these types came over accompanied with many crates of spare parts.

Even though the war in Europe had come to an end and the bombs were being dropped in Japan, they had managed to make almost 2000 flights from Freeman in the aircraft that had been made airworthy. However, with the end of the war, there was no need or budget for the evaluation program and it rather quickly came to an end. Some of the planes were transferred to Davis-Monthan Air Base in Tucson Arizona, some to Wright Field and some to Orchard Place Army Airfield just northwest of Chicago. Need I explain to anyone what became of Orchard Place?

By early 1946, the mission of Freeman Field was over and all the military material was being disposed of by selling it, giving it away, or by the easiest way digging a hole and burying it. Now, for you German aircraft fans, think about all the existing Luftwaffe machines that still reside in various museums today in the USA. That would include the ones in the Smithsonian, the JU-87 hanging in the Science Museum in Chicago, the ones in the Planes of Fame-West at Chino and the other few scattered around the country. All of these were from the collection at Freeman Field.

By April 30th, 1947 the military had finished their disposals and clean up of Freeman, and had officially returned it to the City of Seymour, and it became the civil airport for Seymour and Jackson County, Indiana.

Now, if we do a little inventory here, we find that several of the "War Prize". aircraft had found new homes in museums, Only a handful could be accounted for in that manner. We are sure that some of them were actually scrapped, meaning cut apart into small pieces and melted down. However, scrapping took on another meaning to some people in those days. It meant simply getting rid of it by whatever means were available. In addition to the several dozen aircraft remaining on hand, there were dozens of railroad box cars still on hand that had been used to store the hundreds of tons of spare parts that had never been used. When an individual aircraft was given to a museum, it didn't necessarily have all its spares with it. Many of the spares were still crated and stored. Since there had been a fair amount of Luftwaffe's Jet and Rocket powered aircraft there. They were of great interest to the US military in the early post-war years. Much of the flyable and new or like-new jet/rocket equipment was taken away and a lot of it ended up with the US Navy and US Air Force for further evaluation. Even with that, the inventory list left a lot of material unaccounted for at the time of the turnover of Freeman to the City of Seymour.

From 1947 until 1992, little or no interest was given to the items that were buried at the airfield. The runways were still there and it remains an active airport. Although, a couple of the runways had been closed. The ramps and hangers remain. A fixed base operator runs the fuel sales, hanger rental and flight instruction that goes along with most any civil airport. Rhodes International, a small cargo-hauling airline flying C-47s and Convair 240's had a facility and maintenance hanger and a few corporate aircraft were based there. The main part of the base that had contained the barracks, mess halls, offices and all the buildings found on a busy military base, had become a giant industrial park.

In 1992, Charles Osborn of Louisville, Kentucky, heading a group named "Blue Sky Aviation", made some contacts and received permission to do some digging for the "treasure" rumored for many years to be buried there. After several months of exploratory holes and many pits and trenches dug, they had nothing other than plain trash to show for it. And, I'm not saying plane trash. Blue Sky decided to abandon the project, feeling that little or no aircraft material was there, only the trash typical of any normal dumping site.

Now enters "Salvage 1", run by a Northwest Airlines mechanic, Lex Cralley. Lex has successfully retrieved WW2 aircraft from lakes, rivers, swamps, and other final resting-places that others have given up on. Lex watched the progress of Blue Sky at Freeman and formed his own ideas of how to and how not to go about looking for the "buried treasure". Probably the most important thing was to gain the confidence and respect of the local authorities at Freeman, the City of Seymour, Jackson County, the State of Indiana, the FAA and the United States Air Force Museum. With this done, he poured over maps, vintage aerial photos of the field, interviewed the few old timers still living in the local area that either worked at Freeman in those closing days or knew people who had been there.

By the summer of 1995, Salvage 1 was ready to do a little digging of its own. By this time, I had sort of talked my way into the project as official photographer and historian, even though there was another excellent historian and author from Cincinnati who had been researching Freeman Field for many years. He is Lou Thole, who recently published a soft cover book named "Forgotten Fields of America."

The first dig of 1995 was a site in the middle of a corn field. That dig showed some promise based on the study of several aerial photos that showed a large X shaped disturbance in the topsoil. It had been said that bulldozers had cut large X's in open areas and set some of the larger aircraft in the trenches. They may well have done just that, but not at the point where we labored that day. In 1996, we had run ground radar soundings and checked the ground adjacent to the one lone rail siding on the field, figuring that had they wanted to empty those box cars quickly, a long trench beside the siding would be just the answer.

The radar images tended to reinforce that thinking. Another full day of digging along the tracks drew another blank. If nothing else, we were learning what the radar could and could not show after it penetrated a couple feet of hard blue clay and soil and sand full of natural ferrous material. That day while digging by the tracks, we walked over about 200 yards to the place Blue Sky had been digging in the base dumping ground and where they had put the ash from the base incinerator, in the military days. Even though the ground was now covered with a layer of broken glass from thousands of soda bottles left on the surface by a pop bottling plant which had operated in the industrial park in the past, we thought the site was worth a more thorough search than Blue Sky had given it. Thus, after a lot more radar searching and the taking on of a new business partner, Tidewater Tech of Virginia Beach, VA, it was decided to look into that dump again. In August 1997 after a full day of digging right next to the Blue Sky site, the back hoe pulled up a load of soil and out rolled a beautiful German radial engine cylinder head. The next bucket full brought up several more. Some were identical to the first and several other types and sizes.

Eureka! We had found something! In the next few days we brought up about 3 tons of other German aircraft parts, along with a scattering of some AT-10 parts and a very curious pair of Spitfire Mk. 9 gear doors. In addition ot the cylinders, there was one bank of DB605 V-12 engines (they were used in the Bf-109), several turbine wheel sections from a JUMO engine of the Me-262, a couple dozen prop blades, some wooden and mostly metal, about 50 various landing gear struts, several wheels, some with tires still on them, a dozen or so radiators for liquid cooled engines, hundreds of odd pieces of sheet metal and aircraft framework. One of the airframe parts was what appeared to be a very sturdily built wing tip, obviously of jet or rocket quality. A comparison of the part with some photos and interestingly enough a 1/32 scale plastic model of a Me-262, show it to be the outer two feet of the left horizontal stabilizer of a 262. Possibly the largest single piece brought up was the entire vertical stabilizer of a FW190 still showing the camouflage paint scheme and the swastika on each side.

We have the full story on one FW-190D-9, W/Nr211016, (FE-119), that crashed at Freeman on September 22nd 1945 and the tail was ripped off the aircraft on impact. The rest of the plane bounced, cart-wheeled, and came to a rest a quarter of a mile beyond the impact point. It is said that the pilots body was removed from the wreckage and the plane was buried right where it came to rest. It appears that the tail, which was some distance from that site, did not get buried and somehow ended up in the dump site which we were now digging up. However, our tail was from an earlier FW-190A model and it is not the D-9 that we thought it might be.

That site is now pretty well played out of aircraft parts. Our next target will be some other known dumping areas on other parts of the field.

As I mentioned earlier, one of the old LINK Trainer buildings that still stands on the base has been turned into a mini-museum to hold not only some of the German parts we have found, but also the USAAF historical items that the airport manager has obtained. A local aircraft modelers club has built dozens of models of all types of planes associated with Freeman Field over the years.

On October 29, 1997, the Indiana State Historical Society recognized Freeman Field as an Indiana Historical Site by placing a bronze plaque at the field entrance. This event was undoubtedly brought on by the findings and work we have done over the past few years.

The digging has ceased for this season. But when the ground dries out in the spring, we will be back to check out the area that the radar has shown to be promising. THE SEARCH CONTINUES!!

Page last revised 09/29/2010

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